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Oral health is the overall health of the teeth, gums, and mouth. People typically use the term “dental problems” to refer to conditions that affect oral health.
Dental problems include cavities, tooth erosion, gum infections, and gum diseases. They can cause pain and discomfort, may affect a person’s ability to eat, and may have a negative impact on an individual’s self-esteem.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), dental diseases are
Symptoms can vary depending on the cause. However, common symptoms of dental problems include:
Below is a list of common dental problems, their causes, and treatment options.
Tooth cavities, also called tooth decay or dental caries, develop when a sticky colorless-to-yellow film of bacteria called plaque forms on the tooth’s surface. Sugars in food change into acids that damage and destroy the hard outer covering of teeth, which is known as enamel. This environment makes it easier for plaque to develop.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around
People can help prevent tooth decay by:
- brushing teeth twice a day with a soft brush and fluoride toothpaste
- flossing daily
- limiting frequent snacking and sipping of sugary drinks
- using dental sealants
Dentists usually use fillings to treat cavities and prevent further damage.
Mild gum disease, called gingivitis, occurs when plaque accumulates between and around teeth and infects the gums, causing irritation and swelling. Gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, which can cause bleeding gums, painful chewing, receding gums, and tooth loss.
Based on a 6-year national survey,
Aside from prescribing antibiotics for tooth infection, dentists usually perform a deep-cleaning procedure that involves scaling and root planing to remove tartar and plaque to reverse gum disease. In some cases, a person may need surgery for advanced periodontitis.
Similar to tooth decay, tooth erosion happens when dietary acids cause enamel to wear away. Diets high in sugar and acids can promote dental erosion. People with dry mouth are also at a higher risk of tooth erosion as they do not have enough saliva to rinse away the acid.
A person can help prevent tooth erosion by following a balanced diet and seeking treatment for acid reflux or dry mouth.
Dentists can treat tooth erosion with tooth bonding, which involves applying resin to damaged or discolored teeth. They can also recommend using veneers or crowns to prevent further damage to the teeth. Unfortunately, the damage caused by tooth erosion is irreversible.
Cracked or chipped tooth
A tooth can crack, chip, or break due to chewing or biting hard foods, grinding teeth at night, or accidents and injuries.
Symptoms that can indicate a cracked or chipped tooth include:
- sudden sensitivity to hot and cold temperatures
- pain that comes and goes
- pain when chewing
Dentists will inspect a person’s mouth to look and feel for cracks. They may also use a dental dye to see the damage better.
The treatment for cracked or chipped teeth varies. Dentists may use bonding, put a crown on a tooth, perform a root canal procedure, or extract the tooth, depending on the severity of the damage.
People with sensitive teeth may experience discomfort and pain when they eat cold or hot foods.
Tooth sensitivity can occur when the enamel of the teeth is damaged, allowing substances to reach the nerve endings.
Aside from sealants and fillings, using oral hygiene products for sensitive teeth may help.
Learn more about home remedies for sensitive teeth here.
Many people seek dental treatment to improve the appearance of their teeth. A person may have lower self-esteem due to crooked teeth, extra teeth (hyperdontia), or yellow-stained teeth.
Dentists may recommend the following treatments to enhance the appearance of a person’s teeth:
- teeth whitening
- dental implants
- other cosmetic dental technologies or procedures
An impacted tooth is a tooth that has failed to erupt, usually due to lack of space. The impacted tooth may then move up against another tooth.
It can cause jaw and gum pain, bad breath, and an inability to open the mouth easily.
Dentists usually diagnose impacted teeth by taking a dental X-ray.
Depending on the affected tooth, a dentist may use eruption aids, remove teeth that may be blocking it, or remove it through extraction surgery.
Oral cancer includes any cancer found in the mouth, including the lips, tongue, tonsils, and oropharynx.
Common symptoms include sores and lumps that do not heal.
A person can reduce their risk for oral cancer by not smoking, not using smokeless tobacco, and limiting alcohol consumption. This cancer is curable if a doctor diagnoses it early, and regular dental checkups can help with early diagnosis.